Blog Post #4


For Innovation Night, our team was prepared with our solar dehydrator, new and improved solar oven, some dehydrated grapes, and a presentation. At Innovation Night, our objective was to sell people our solar cookers over other people’s inventions or ideas. We did not have a lot of time to make our presentation, but we knew what we wanted to say because we had written these blogs. We won people over by giving them our dehydrated grapes to try. Probably seven people said they tasted like fruit roll ups! Even though our dehydrator was in rough shape because the duct tape had melted and it fell over, we had a great product to prove it worked. Even though we did not have a chance to try our new solar oven, we were able to sell our ideas using evidence of what past groups had experienced to back up our solar oven. Overall, we were very well prepared for this presentation because we put in a lot of time testing out our oven s and dehydrators and looking at evidence from past groups and the Internet.

We earned 36,100 dollars at innovation night.

Our APES project was to build a solar dehydrator and a solar oven and to test them in one week. Our group felt a little rushed, but we completed our projects. We had some failures during the building process, but the pleasure came from learning from our mistakes. Our dehydrator worked well, and we had some successful dehydrated raisins for everyone to try. To be honest, they tasted great! (I took a video of me and Jacqui eating homemade raisins and sent it to my mom.) When people were walking around in the wise center, I felt excited and proud to introduce our projects to them, and I felt like I was a sales staff in the market. Our solar oven didn’t succeed in baking brownies, but we’ve made changes to it, and we need to test it sometime next week. During the presentation, I didn’t feel very nervous because I’ve been saying the same lines again and again. Surprisingly, our group got the highest score of explaining! Though we did a good job presenting our projects, our dehydrator and oven are not the best ones. There are a lot to learn from other groups. Jay’s group’s dehydrator worked the most efficiently because they had two divisions which use both the energy from the direct sunlight and the heat transferred by the aluminum cans. That is a really smart design.

Solar dehydrators and solar ovens are easy to make (we found all of our materials from the trash and recycle bins except the duck tape and the mylar). I may use them in my home to reduce my carbon footprint and save a little energy. They are not only great for people in the third-world countries but are also necessary for developed countries where most energy is consumed.


Jacqui’s Reflection: Innovation Night was really fun because we got to tell people all about this cool project we did! It was also helpful for me because it laid out our whole project and it made me reflect on the processes of these past three weeks. It was tough selling our solar cookers because neither one of them was in great shape, but we were able to sell the ideas. It was also a little bit worrisome because we only had two days to make our presentation, so we only practiced it once before Innovation Night. Overall though, everything went well.

Hannah’s reflection:

I enjoyed innovation night. Our presentations went really well! I would definitely do this project again! The only thing I would change was I would do it next week, give us a little more time.

Linnea’s Reflection:

I enjoyed teaming up with the APES class to create a dehydrator and an oven. I think that we were able to learn a lot from each other and collaborate to create an efficient dehydrator, and an oven that needed only a few improvements. I wish that the weather would have been more cooperative following our test of the oven so that we could test our changes to oven. Aside from that minor setback, I enjoyed being able to enjoy some raisins and experiencing some team teaching from Chris and Alan


Challenge#3 Cooking

Our APES E block class combined with the E block physics class to build a solar oven. Last blog post we completed and started testing our oven. We  had researched different designs for our oven the previous week. We eventually chose a design that we thought would work best with the temperatures. However it did not work as well as we hoped. Our brownies only cooked on the top layer. This was very discouraging because we had spent a lot of time and energy to create our oven. Despite our best efforts in designing a successful oven the weather failed us.

The weather hadn’t been cooperating and had been overcast all week. We only had one beautiful, sunny, hot day to try out our oven. Here are some photos of our oven cooking. In the photos it seemed like it was working…however it was deceiving. 

Our oven cooking (PC Hannah)

Our oven failed to reach 150 degrees. Our original design was to use reflective materials to bring heat into the cooker, as well as using insulation on the inside of the oven to trap the heat. Unfortunately, this our oven we made didn’t work. Our materials inside the cooker, prevented the cooker from trapping heat. We had placed mylar in the oven and placed our brownies in the center of the box, but because the mylar was highly reflective, the heat that entered was quickly sent back out into the atmosphere. We also failed to place enough extra sheeting around the oven to catch more light to add more heat to the oven. Overall our oven design failed. There was other factors that contributed to our oven failure.  Another major difficulty of building our oven was lack of time. We felt very rushed, it was hard to balance finishing the dehydrator and starting the oven plus writing blog posts. If we had more time we might have been able to fix our oven and retest our oven. I wish we had more time that we could have used to made our oven function. It would have been great to retest our oven or to even try it more than once. However we took some time outside of class to make some changes to our oven.

Here are some photos of our changes and efforts to change our solar oven. (PC Hannah) 

We decided to update our solar oven because our brownies did not cook. The brownie batter was about a half an inch thick, but because our solar oven did not reach 150 degrees Fahrenheit, they did not cook. We changed our design by putting more insulation in the top box to hold heat in. We also made the bottom of the top box black instead of reflective because we think that all of the solar energy we were collecting was being reflected out instead of held. Adding the black to the bottom of the box will hold in the solar energy we are collecting. Lastly, we added reflective sides to the solar oven because a lot of the other groups in the past have done a design like this and it has proven to be successful. Another group in our class has reflective sides and got to 300 degrees Fahrenheit, so we decided to try a similar method. Hopefully these changes will make our solar oven more successful, but we will have to wait a few days to try it out because it is cloudy.

Challenge #2 Performance Blog post

Our APES E block class combined with the E block physics class to build a solar oven and a dehydrator. Last blog post we completed our dehydrator. This week we started building the solar oven. We found all of our materials last week, thanks again Lida!

We researched different designs for our oven. We eventually chose one that we thought would work best with the temperatures. For our design, we chose something that other teams in the past had done. This is the general design of our solar oven.


Photo of Design of solar oven (PC Google Images)

On May 9th our groups started to assemble our oven. Here are a few photos of our group assembling it. (PC Hannah)

We have chosen a box solar oven. As a group we chose to bake brownies in our oven. We chose this because brownies seemed to work in the past for other groups, also because brownies bake easily. Box cookers require a moderate to high temperatures. This is the most common type of oven in the world. Solar cookers work on basic principles of sunlight is converted to heat energy that is retained for cooking. Solar cookers don’t work at night or on cloudy days. Our fuel pre-say is sunlight. Our solar cooker need a spot outdoors that is sunny for several hours. We have to make sure that wind will not knock it over.  Dark surfaces get very hot while in the sunlight. Therefore we will spray paint the insides black. That way our food will cook best. To retain heat we have a transparent cover or a ‘heat trap’. This heat resistant plastic will help our insulated box keep in heat. We required insulation because we want to trap the heat and get the brownies cooking. Without insulation the temperature won’t rise enough to cook the brownies properly. We used yellow insulation form to help insulate it. Hope fully it will work.

Some difficulties of building our oven was time. We felt very rushed like we didn’t have enough time. It was hard to balance having to get our dehydrator ready to go, building our oven and writing a blog post. However we worked together and separated duties and got it all done. That was a big success delegating duties. We improved our oven by reevaluating the insulation. We realized that we did have enough insulation so we fixed that problem by adding insulation to ensure that no hot air could escape, as well as preventing cold air from entering.

Hannah’s reflection: This process has been very stressful. I was late to class because of dish duty, I walked in and felt my group was very stressed about building it on time. However we worked as a group and built a good solar oven that I am very proud of.

Jacqui’s Reflection: This process has still been very fun and innovative, but it feels rushed. We managed to get our solar dehydrator finished and the oven started by splitting up into groups. I really liked getting to use old materials because we could put together our oven pretty fast. I am very excited to see how the grapes we chose to dehydrate turn out. Also, yesterday we learned that if you cut the fruit a certain way to have lots of surface area, it will dehydrate easier. That’s so cool, and I never thought about it before. In these few days coming up, we will learn how well our designs work and what we need to change. I am very excited to see which designs work best!

Kelly’s Reflection: I felt stressed to begin the testing of dehydrator, complete the building of solar oven and write the blog in one day, however, we did it successfully. The outer parts of the grapes have already been dehydrated, and I hope that they will turn out to be delicious raisins. I think the process of building the solar oven is easier than that of building the solar dehydrator. We finished it quickly and now just need to consider about how to let the reflection board stay stable throughout the day out of regard for the wind. The thing we can still work on our dehydrator is to consider how to let the convection currents go through our box in order to hold heat and create a air circular system at the same time.

Linnea’s Reflection: I think today was stressful because we were trying to complete the dehydrator and begin work on the oven so that everything could be completed on time. I am happy with the way our dehydrator came out came out, and I am looking forward to (hopefully) seeing some results by the end of this week. I am excited to do more work on the solar oven, especially doing work on the piece intended to reflect the light into the oven because I feel like the information I have learned from physics could be useful in optimizing the efficacy of the cooker.

Dehydrator Creation Blog Post #1

Our APES E block class combined with the E block physics class to build a solar oven and a dehydrator. This week we started building the dehydrator. We first had to find materials. One of our requirements was that we had to find it from trash or recyclable material. Our group set off and found many materials, Lida in the bookstore was a great help.

Picture of our materials (PC Hannah)

We researched a lot of different designs for our dehydrator. We eventually chose one that we thought would work best for us. For our design, we chose it because it can be easily tweak and that would be less difficult to make, since we are on a time crunch. This is the general design of our dehydrator.3.jpg

Photo of Design of dehydrator (PC Hannah)

On May 5th our groups started to assemble our dehydrator. Here are a few photos of our group assembling it. (PC Hannah)

“This is so hard, but do-able, think about third world countries, they would do this.” Jacqui stated. She is so right, this is a very accessible design for countries without a lot of resources. This is one of the reasons we chose this design.

We decided to use this design because when we searched for solar dehydrators in the Northeast on Google, this design seemed popular. Sunlight will come into the box because it is painted black and the color black absorbs heat. Sunlight goes through the part of the box covered in glass. The heat will be kept in the box because the piece of glass and the cardboard act as insulation. We will not use any reflective materials like mirrors or aluminum foil because that makes the box too hot, and we do not want to cook our food. Lastly, there will be vents in the bottom of the box because heat rises, so the air can still circulate without all of the heat escaping.

We chose to dehydrate grapes in our dehydrator. We chose this because grapes aren’t dense and because they have a lot of liquid. We also chose grapes because they’re grown locally, hence reducing our carbon footprint! “Dehydration of grapes will generally occur between 125 and 140 degrees Fahrenheit”, according to our research. At any lower temperature bacteria can grow, at any higher temp it would be cooking. Our grapes will turn into raisins. Our research stated that it might take anywhere from 24-48 hours to dehydrate.

Here are some reference that support our design and our food.

Jacqui’s Reflection: Making the solar dehydrator is really cool because we are only allowed to use recycled materials. We are learning to problem solve and innovate. For example, we used a grate that Alan found at the dump as the vent for the dehydrator. Also, the materials don’t fit perfectly together, so we had to improvise multiple times, like making a cardboard shelf for the metal shelf to fit on, or turning the box sideways and adding another piece of cardboard to make a side so we have the perfect shape. Overall, this project has been really fun so far, and I am excited to see how it turns out. I am sure we will run into many problems with our design and the outcome of our foods, but we will try our best to fix them using the knowledge that we have been accumulating throughout this project.

Hannah’s Reflection: I hope we can make the solar dehydrator in time. I’m nervous but hopeful we can do it. Also I hope that our design works and that our grapes dehydrate. It’s going to be difficult but I have confidence we can do it!  It should be fun!

Linnea’s Reflection: So far this project has been very interesting to participate in. I like working with the other class and collaborating with each other, as well as building off of the designs we have found on the internet. I hope that as the project moves forward, my knowledge from physics will become more useful to the group because I am interested in using what I have learned this year in a real world situation.

Kelly’s Reflection: It sounded really unbelievable to make a solar dehydrator, but it was actually not that hard when we understood its working principles and began to do it. The solar dehydrator turned out to be good, and we only need to do the final step now. I hope we can use our solar dehydrator to make raisins successfully. It will help many people in developing countries because the building process is easy and we don’t need much material.


Are we Carbon Neutral Yet? Investigative Blog

Proctor’s Environmental Mission Statement states that  “Proctor Academy’s Environmental Mission is to teach and practice sustainability throughout our school community.” Proctor has demonstrated and accomplished this goal in many ways.


Alan, our environmental coordinator (PC Google Images)

Alan, our environmental coordinator always makes assembly announcements to guide us in the right eco-friendly direction. An example would be when he shows us what and what not to recycle. I learned that paper with grease on it cannot be recycled. Proctor also demonstrates this aspect of the mission statement by having the green dorm challenge. The green dorm challenge encourages us to practice good life tips like unplugging power cords when not in use. This challenge will help in the future when I use the skills I learned from Proctor to save money in my home.schools-proctor-construction.jpg

Our new dining hall (PC Google Images)

As a school we practice sustainability by updating our facilities to be eco-friendly and sufficient. Our meeting house has solar panels that are producing energy to help fuel our school to reduce or carbon footprint. Our new dining hall will have geothermal wells, and solar panels that will help reduce our carbon footprint and continue to make us a carbon neutral school. By these actions Proctor is living up to its mission statement.ffff.jpg

The meeting house’s solar panels (PC myself)

Another aspect of Proctor trying to reach the statement is by “exploring the social, ecological and economic problems that confront us all, as well as the means to address those challenges on our campus and in our personal lives each day.” This is done in many different ways, but just yesterday we were required to watch a movie called ‘Racing Extinction’. Racing Extinction follows activists, scientists and others, to draw attention to mankind’s role in a potential loss of at least half of the world’s species. This is a major issue, Proctor helped raise my awareness this issue. After the movie we had a discussion group that broaded our view of the subject. By allowing us to watch this movie and discuss it after Proctor is living up to this statement.b6a976b7366a131eb13fd54fec55ceca_ls.jpg

A statement from Racing Extinction (PC Google Images)

Another example of how Proctor reaches their mission is to “strive to attain and sustain a carbon neutral footprint on campus.” During our APES E Block class we tried to find out if Proctor was meeting its mission of carbon neutrality. We did this by calculating collected data and converting it through mathematics. Since 2008, Proctor has been striving to be a carbon neutral campus. We determined that as of 2015 Proctor is carbon neutral. We found that Proctor forestry absorbs 2086 metric tons of CO2 each year. We then determined that Proctor produces 1425.9 metric tons. 2086 metric tons subtract 1425.9 metric tons equal 660.1 metric tons left over. These calculations make Proctor carbon neutral. There are certain flaws in the worksheet and data collection, it’s missing a piece. The missing piece is the transportation footprint. We don’t account for all the travel, the gas and the total co2 outputs from those vehicles. We did however try to calculate the transportation footprint.
We calculated 22 mini buses we then determined that the all the mini buses travel 80 miles per week, they get 9 miles per gallon. So we multiped 22 mini buses by 80 miles and divide by 9 miles per gallon and then came out to 195.5 gallons per year. We then decided we were in school 30 weeks out of the year,  so we multiplied 195.5 x 195.5 gallons which equaled 5866.6 gallons per year, we then converted to kg co2 per year which ended up being 58.6667 kg co2/year. 660.1 metric tons minus 58.6667 kg co2/year still makes the school carbon neutral. There are definitely flaws with all of your calculations, we guessed on the numbers, we rounded so not everything is precise. However, with this data that we have Proctor is carbon neutral. There are a lot of ways Proctor is living up to it environmental mission. Proctor continues to vigorously  achieve our environmental mission statement.

Pandora’s Promise: Nuclear Power

image of earth.jpg

Photo of Earth (PC Pandora’s Promise Blog Website)

We started off the term with learning about different sources of fossil fuels. Then with this movie we jump into nuclear energy. When I think of the world nuclear I think death, destruction, atomic bombs and getting nuked.  However, after watching the film Pandora’s Promise by Robert Stone, my views have shifted. As stated in the movie “Nuclear Energy was first used for an atomic bomb, that’s why it has a negative light.” Most people think of bombs when thinking about nuclear power, I did. The movie follows a couple environmentalists and activists who speak about their past and current views on nuclear power and how they have changed their ways of thinking about it.  Mark stated “whenever you change your mind drastically, you start to wonder what you were thinking”. This film focused on shifting the common misconception of the safety of nuclear energy. Which begs the question how safe is nuclear energy?

I began the movie on Monday night, I watched it in pieces and finished on Wednesday evening. Throughout the movie, I was a bit confused and had to rewatch several parts. My mind was constantly racing with questions, finally it clicked. At first the environmentalists were all against nuclear energy and being the stubborn people they figured that wouldn’t change but it did. Same for me, my views have shifted as well. I no longer think of nuclear energy as a bad thing.

An environmentalist named Mark Lynas, a British author and environmental activist visited Fukushima . The movie, shows him putting on a white jumpsuit, a radiation protection jumpsuit. As he zips up the jumpsuit he stated, “I feel a bit like an idiot actually” Robert Stone says “Why?” and Mark responded by saying, “Because I’m wearing radiation clothing. It shouldn’t be necessary.” Mark is in Fukushima, Japan, where a nuclear power plant was located, the area that was destroyed by the tsunami. The surround area around the power plant cannot be rebuilt because of radiation contaminating the ground. When some of the nuclear energy site have a failure, it swings the public opinion drastically. The difficulty with nuclear power is that public opinion is very hard to swing back to good opinions. Later in the movie, Mark realizes that nuclear power makes up a sixth of the world’s energy, but is a source that doesn’t emit an ounce of carbon and it’s renewable. Mark was one of environmentalists that stood in support of nuclear power as a solution to climate change. 4

Mark Lynas and Robert Stone in their radiation suits (PC Pandora’s Promise Blog Website)

A nuclear engineer, environmentalist named Len Koch told his story. Len helped build the first nuclear power reactors. Nuclear energy has become one of the most abundant energy sources in the world. As a community we should take advantage of the abundant amount of energy. Len Koch stated, “One pound of uranium, which is the size of my fingertip, if you could release all of the energy, has an equivalent of 5,000 barrels of oil.” That’s an insane equivalent.

A cube of Uranium,  and a photo of Len Koch (PC Pandora’s Promise Blog Website)

That is absolutely insane to wrap my brain around. Just think about how much energy could be produced if everyone was pro-nuclear. However, not everyone sees the positive outcomes that nuclear power could offer. People only see the bad things that could occur. After watching this movie, I understand more and more about nuclear power. I understand that it could help our environment greatly. It could be a long term solution to climate change.

8Photo of Michael Shellenberger (PC Pandora’s Promise Blog Website)

Michael Shellenberger, an activist leader, told his personal story about being antinuclear most of his life, he grew up in a liberal family, his parents grew up in the 60’s. Stewart Brand grew up in the 60’s and stated what it was like “I had nightmares….us kids were doing duck and cover test under our desks.” If you grew up in a family like Michael, did you grew up antinuclear. Michael told the story of how when he was little he went on a tour of a nuclear power plant with some of his buddies. Michael said that his buddies and him made stupid comments and disregarded the idea of nuclear energy. On the tour, the tour guide stated “It’s a clean source of energy. It’s really safe. It doesn’t have anything to do with nuclear weapons.” Michael and his friends all just laughed it off again because they thought it had to be a joke. It wasn’t until much later that Michael realized how important nuclear energy actually is and how it could help global climate change by being a clean source of energy.

nuclear poweer plant

Photo of a nuclear power plant (PC Google Images)

Nuclear power emits low amounts of carbon dioxide into the environment. By having low amount of carbon dioxide added to the environment we could stabilize or even decrease global warming. Even if we could stabilize global warming wouldn’t that be awesome? Nuclear power has an abundant amount. There is nuclear energy and power available right now. Nuclear power can generate vast amounts of electricity and power within one nuclear power plant that could help power large cities.

Anyone who is anti-nuclear should watch this film, it would hard to argue against nuclear power after watching it. This film has changed the way I view nuclear energy in broad sense. I can still see the negative effects but I now see more positive effects. I am not saying that everyone should be pro-nuclear, that’s just unrealistic. Yes, nuclear power is scary. Radiation and nuclear spills are terrifying thoughts that will always be associated with nuclear energy. However, those odds are one in a million chances of happening again. Bad things could always happen but the positive benefits outweigh the risks, at least in my eyes. I’m not pro-nuclear or anti-nuclear, I’m in the middle. I’m flexible, I see the risks but that’s like anything in life. I believe nuclear power could help our environment number problem of climate change. It just depends on if you use nuclear power properly and what you chose to do with it. The misconception of the dangerous nature of nuclear power has restrained the potential energy. Nuclear power is green and productive. With the increasing demand on energy all over the world, nuclear energy could be a solution.  If nuclear power could make the plant survive longer why not? Why not give it a try at least?


Global climate change at Proctor/New Hampshire

Global climate change is defined by our textbook is “trends and variations in Earth’s climate.” Climate and weather are often confessed. The difference between weather and climate is time period. Weather is conditions of the atmosphere over a short period of time, and climate is how the atmosphere “behaves” over long periods of time. Global climate changes is linked with global warming. Global warming as described in our textbook is “an increase in earth’s average temperature.” The root causes of climate change are directly linked to increased greenhouse gases in our atmosphere. Greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide are atmospheric gases that absorb and reemit radiation back to earth surface. By having the energy travel back downward towards earth’s surface, it warms the ground surface and increases Earth’s temperature. Scientists believe that most of the global warming was caused by human release of greenhouse gases. An example of a human activity that releases greenhouse gases would be the burning fossil fuels, hence releasing CO2 into the atmosphere.1681901-poster-1280-pollution

Factories burning fossil fuels (PC Google Images)

Deforestation at the hands of human also contributes to rising CO2. The forest trees collected carbon and store it within them. Trees help remove CO2 from the atmosphere. By deforestation, the removed trees cannot take in or absorb the carbon so the carbon is sent elsewhere into the atmosphere.  

According to our teacher Alan, the Earth had warmed by about 2 degrees Fahrenheit over the last two hundred years.The number may sound low, but it is actually high. The heating of the earth may explain why the world’s ice mass is melting and oceans rising quicker than in the past.unnamed.jpg

Polar ice caps melting (PC Google Images)

Climate change is occurring at Proctor Academy and in New Hampshire. I interviewed Dave Pilla to find out how climate change is occurring at Proctor.


Dave Pilla (PC Google Images)

Dave doesn’t use the term ‘climate change’ rather ‘Global climate weirdness’. Dave explained that this year alone we’ve had weird weather stretches. It’s been too wet, too dry, too warm. This winter on Christmas it was 60 degrees, then it’ll drop within a day to being 10 degrees. From a sugaring perspective, Dave usually taps his trees the second week in March. Historically, that’s when the trees have the sap stored and they’ll start releasing it. Dave told me that “you could have justified tapping out two weeks ago and some people did”. Dave expressed his worry about whether he’s missing the sugar season and what’s with all this ‘climate weirdness’?? Is crazy weather tied to climate change? Extreme, crazy weather has been happening for as long as we have recored it. However there’s a general scientific agreement that global warming has contributed to a trend toward of intense periods heat and precipitation around New Hampshire. So yes our crazy warm winter is linked to climate change.

From a forestry perspective Dave talked about ‘forest pests’. ‘Ghost Moose’ have experienced forest pests in the form of ticks.01ghostmoose.adapt.768.1

Ghost Moose (PC Google Images)

‘Ghost moose’ are covered by ticks, the ticks make the moose irritated and causes it to scratch and rub off most of its hair. This leaves the moose’s bare skin exposed and vulnerable. The ticks are also making the moose anemic, causing the moose to lose blood. The moose will not have enough fur or strength to survive. Dave brought up a couple questions…Is the ticks survive contributed to the fact that our winters are becoming more conducive to their survival? If our winters were brutally cold like in the past, would the ticks survive?


Ghost Moose (PC Google Images)

Dave then talked about subtropical species making their way about to the Gulf of Maine, he stated “the gulf stream is changing position”. If somethings occur naturally the question then becomes how do we measure how human involvement? That’s where the argument comes in, how much is naturally occurring, or naturally occurring but human actions have increased it or how much it occurring because of direct human activities?? It’s a hard question to answer…there’s no black and white answer as Dave pointed out no one really truly knows how much human have impacted it.


Back how to do we stop this picture from happening?    (PC Google Images)

The general conclusion is that the earth will get warmer. In some places rainfall will be heavier, other places it will become drier. Coastal flooding will become more frequent as a result of the melting polar ice caps. In the extremist circumstance, scientists fear global warming will be so severe that it will produce waves of refugees from coastal cities, certain animals and plants will go extinct, and all the polar ice caps will melt causing flooding of coastal cities. All of this could take hundreds years to happen or it could start tomorrow. That’s the terrifying part you just don’t know when it’s going to happen. While reading all of this I had several questions… is there anything I can do? My results were fly, drive and waste less, which seems easy enough but is very hard to avoid. Netherless I hope to reduce my carbon footprint even in the slightest to help the cause. I enjoyed researching and speaking with Dave Pilla. While learning about this topic I became increasingly aware of how big my carbon footprint is. I drive everyday that’s a huge carbon footprint that I can’t help or avoid. But I can make up for the huge carbon footprint by having my footprint be less in other areas. Overall learning, researching and interviewing were all very enjoyable.